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以色列专家Shaul Manor专题演讲 -- 以色列的水资源开发利用
  2015-03-13 15:10  

EFFICIENT USE OF WATER
THE ISRAELI EXPERIENCE

Dr. Shaul Manor        Consultant
Irrigation Management and Agriculture Extension
UDI

 

EFFICIENCY OF WATER USE IN AGRICULTURE

30% - Worldwide average
50% - On-farm average in the USA
90% - and more in well  managed irrigation
The  classic definition of efficiency are related to:   Water utilization by the  crop or  Water retained  in the  root  zone

Other definitions are in term of:
-Amount of  water applied to land unit
-Production per water unit or yield per water unit
-Net income per water unit
Two prerequisites have to exist   for  the implementation of   efficient use of water:  Incentives
Means

INCENTIVES TO IMPROVE  EFFICIENCY

-Arid   climate, scarcity  of  land and water,  high cost of water or   high alternative cost  of water.
-The possibility to expand the irrigated area or  the expectation for higher income.

MEANS TO  IMPROVE  EFFICIENCY

-Farmers cannot  afford themselves to invest  in  water saving irrigation methods and equipment.
-Only public assistance and financiation can motivate farmers to adopt water saving irrigation techniques.

FACTORS  INFLUENCING
THE EFFICIENCY OF WATER USE CAN  BE CLASSIFIED  IN  FOUR  CATEGORIES:

1. TECHNOLOGY

More than 90% of the irrigated land in the world is irrigated by surface irrigation.
Only minor fraction of the users of surface irrigation apply the sophisticated techniques to get  uniform water distribution.
Poor controlled operation of surface  irrigation is the main reason to waste of water in agriculture.
In Israel, from the early fifties surface irrigation was gradually abandoned and pressurized irrigation facilities, quality sprinklers, has been developed to improve the water distribution uniformity in the field.
In the sixties, the development and dissemination in Israel of drip irrigation along with wide-scale operation of automatic valves.   
2. AGRONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Breeding of new  varieties,  highly productive and consuming less water, as well  as changing   growing season, may  further increase the efficiency of water use, in  term of yield per water unit.
Crop water requirement studies along with strict monitoring of soil moisture, evaporation and plant development. Fertigation was integrated in  irrigation, increasing  production per  water unit.
The changes from 1950 in the average water amount given to the principal crops in central   Israel,expressed  in cubic meter per hectare are as follow:

Cotton from 9000 to 4500 cubic   meter/Ha.
Citrus 10000 6000  
Avocado 12000 7000  
Banana 25000 12000  
Table grapes  6000 3500  
Peanuts   7000 4500  

3. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL MEANS
Price and payment policy is one of the most efficient tools to motivate farmers to use water efficiently.
When water price is minimal, when payment is per unit area or per application, farmers have no incentive to save water.
In the seventies, a financial support had given to farmers in Israel for modernization of the irrigation systems and  improvement of water management in small family farms.
Financial support had been given also for elevating the level of irrigation scheduling and operation through the introduction of automation in irrigation, irrigation controllers and integration of computers in irrigation systems.

4.THE  HUMAN  FACTOR
When traditional  farmers populations are first time exposed to modern irrigation systems they  have to be gradually trained to understand  the new concepts of water management.
Success in  operation and efficient  water utilization depend on the attitude,  skill and devotion of the farmer himself.
The Extension Service in Israel play an important role in the production and dissemination of  know-how in irrigation. In Israel there is a close interaction between research,  extension, industry and farmers in research and development.

THE  CHALLENGE OF WATER  CONSERVATION

Although the irrigation efficiency in Israel is quite high, there are good prospect for   further saving of water through technical developments and updated  know-how.
The new ultra-low rate irrigation with application rates of less than 1 mm per hour opens new horizons for water savings, eliminating ponding and leaching while keeping optimal air-water ratio in the soil.
The gravity micro drip system operated without external source of energy may further improve irrigation efficiency, especially in family farms.
Better education, training and diffusion of know-how among farmers. The success in water conservation depends on their skills and   motivation.


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