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法国专家Elisabeth Jaskulké演讲 -- 基于流域的水资源统一管理
  2015-03-13 15:09  

TOWARD A BASIN INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT :
THE FRENCH CASE

Form a presentation written by Pierre-Alain Roche*
at IWA international Conference in Paris, 2000 and
updated by Elisabeth Jaskulké**

* Chief Executive of the Seine Normandie Water Agency, 51 rue Salvador Allende, 92027 Nanterre Cedex, France
** Head of Ile de France (Paris and Suburbs) co-ordination, Lyonnaise des Eaux France, 300 rue PV Couturier 92000 Nanterre

 

The French institutions in charge of water management have been organised since 1964 following the basin level integrated water resource management principle, prevailing at present international meetings. After 35 years, it is interesting to take stock of this experience in order to modernise these institutions.

BASIN INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT : THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT

The European framework directive for water

The multiplication of sectorial directives led the European authorities to consider at length a framework directive for water in order to make these hap-hazard measures more coherent. This has become urgent since regulations are becoming more and more severe, and could lead to major financial difficulties due to the deadlines imposed. The limits of the water policies followed till now are well shown by the development of non point source pollutions. The obligations introduced by sectorial policies are not a sufficient guideline for water management policies. Actually, the large number of simultaneous goals and the poor links with land planning (urbanisation, intensive agriculture....) do not allow the definition of more urgent and more efficient measures for aquatic ecosystem protection and sustainable water use, based on the protection of the resources. The framework directive emphasizes the following topics :

· To delimit the hydrographic districts ( basins or the set of basins including, if necessary, underground water and the connected coastal waters), the State will have to define the competent authorities to implement environmental objectives. The study of the district caracteristics, of the consequences of human activities on water, and an economic analysis of water use will be required too;

· To define environmental aims which will put in a coherent frame all the prescriptions given by the directives in order to:
a) prevent the deterioration of ecological systems and the increase of river pollution, and restore water quality. For deeply modified and artificial bodies of water adapted goals may be defined if necessary.
b) prevent a deterioration of underground water, restore its quality and insure a balance between water intake and water renewal. Reverse all tendencies to increase and limit in a sustainable and significative way the concentration of all pollutants resulting from the impact of human activity. This objective will force action on soil quality, land use and occupation, as the percolating through polluted soil often causes underground water pollution.
c) insure the respect of standards and objectives for all associated protected areas.

· To list protected areas subject to a special legal prescription.

· To elaborate a set of measures for each hydrographical district, including basic decisions (minimal requirements such as controls, licences, limit values for discharged waters or for intakes, prohibition to throw out direct wastes or to discharge directly in underground water, except particular cases, etc.) These measures have to take into account at least the actual standards and complementary measures such as recommended best practice, fiscal or economic tools, etc.

· To publish management plans for hydrographic district, including an abstract of herewith cited documents and giving details on the decided measures. These plans have to be regularly assessed and updated.

· To provide an information and a large participation of the citizens and stakeholders at the scale of hydrographical districts.

WATER PLANNING AND PROGRAMMATION TOOLS IN FRANCE

As previously mentioned, France has a rather complete set of institutions for water management at the basin level. France is divided in 6 large basins (Fig. 1) which can be considered as hydrographic districts in the sense of the European Union framework directive. The Seine-Normandy basin, shown in Fig. 2, is a good illlustration of this.

SDAGE and SAGE

The « Framework water catchment management plans » (« Schémas Directeurs d'Aménagement et de Gestion des Eaux » - SDAGE) were set up by the 1992 Water Act. Elaborated by the Basin Committees, the SDAGE are supposed to achieve a balanced water resource (considered by the law as a common heritage of the nation) management in each large basin. They mainly define the long-term aims for water quantity and quality and the measures that have to be undertaken to achieve their fulfilment. The SDAGE of the Seine-Normandy Basin was approved on september 20th 1996 following four years' broad consultation.

The « Subcatchment water management plans » (« Schémas d'Aménagement et Gestion des Eaux » SAGE) were also set up by the 1992 Water Act. The limits of the subcatchments concerned by this procedure have been defined by the SDAGE. SAGE procedures are still being developed.

The Water Agency programme

The basin Committee has the responsability of approving the 5 year programmes of the Water Agencies set up with the different partners (State, water stakeholders, local authorities,....) The present 7th programme is valid from 1997 to 2001. For the Seine-Normandy basin, this programme forsees the financing, over 5 years, of 40,5 billion francs (6,17 billion euros) with 25,1 billion franc of financial support (3,82 billion euros). During the first 3 years from 1997 to 1999, these yearly ambitious objectives have been reached. Waste water treatment investments, drinking water security or polluted soil treatment are supported by subsidies and loans. This important aid is necessary to induce investment decisions. In fact it concerns infrastructures which are considered as non productive by industrialists and farmers, otherwise local public services could not afford to undertake the necessary investments at an acceptable water cost increase.

Bonuses are given more and more by Water Agencies as a result of the depollution targets actually attained by the operators: not only investments, but also control of the proper management of facilities are on the agenda. So a proper and sustainable achievement of environmental results is now expected. Quality programs and ISO 14000 procedures are encouraged.

BASIN COMMITTEES AND THE PARLIAMENT: COMPLEMENTARY ROLES

In the present organisation, the Basin Committees play a strategic role for water management in France, as has been seen for the SDAGE and the water Agencies programmes and taxes. Each basin has its own Basin Committee :

· regional, departmental and municipal authorities for the 2/5 seats,

· representatives of the state department responsible for water, for 1/5 seats

· and - an important characteristic of the French system -, delegates of the main water users in the basin, especially industrials, farmers, anglers and associations for the defense of the environment or the consumers, for the 2/5 seats left.

The reduction of non point source pollutions, the improvement of management and modernization of existing facilities, in order to respect the deadlines of the European Directives (urban waste waters, drinking water and nitrates), are the main concerns and goals. New objectives will also have to be persued, such as the treatment of storm water and reuse of water, for which present measures are clearly unsufficient. Requirements for the 2002 to 2006 period of time have been evaluated in the Seine-Normandy basin at 42.3 billons francs (6.45 billions euros), that means a moderate growth in comparison to 1997-2001.

DEVELOPMENT INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

Some results from 35 years' activity .

Policy of the kind implemented by the Water Agencies will only lead to meaningful environmental results if they are sustained and comprehensive.

From their setting up, the Water Agencies resources were stable till 1985, and then regularly increased during 10 years, and have been stabilised for the present. The effect of these efforts on the development of the wastewater treatment plants is spectacular.

The coherence of such a programme is well illustrated by the results obtained in the Oise river basin, a tributary of the Seine. The Oise basin includes, among the main communities, 30 towns of over 10.000 equivalent-inhabitants, representing 75% of its urban pollution. At the beginning of the 90's, the mediocre quality of the Oise water began to be a great public concern. Poor treatment plants performances for nitrogen pollution and average results for organic pollution had been revealed : the main urban wastewater treatment plants had turned out to be obsolete. It was decided to rebuild them. They have been designed to take into account part of the rainwaters (most of the network being of the combined sewer overflow type) and to eliminate ammonium and part of the phosphorus. Figure 6a and 6b compare the NTK concentration in the Oise river for 2 periods of time :

· 1985-1989, before the treatment plants were rebuilt

· in 1997, after their upgrading

Such examples could be found in all subcatchments. The case of the microbiological pollution on the Calvados Channel beaches speaks for itself .

The importance of local facilitators for a comprehensive policy, especially in the rural areas.

During the elaboration of the SDAGE, the Seine Normandy Basin Committee, emphasized that the situation was not satisfactory for rural areas :

· For the inhabitants in these rural areas, the quality of the service was often unsufficient, and there were shocking differences in water prices.

· Individual sanitation had not been developed enough; collective sanitation was in many cases delayed for economical reasons and, when installed, had often a very poor efficiency, for operational as well as design reasons.

· For the environment, the result was worrying. Underground water quality was deteriorating, jeopardizing drinking water. There was an improvement in the quality of large rivers, but the mesh of small upstream tributaries, formerly with rather good standards, was now falling toward a mediocre level.

· For the Water Agency it was neither satisfactory nor efficient to deal with the individual farmers, with only isolated results.

The gap between the rural areas and the urban communities was increasing. As water resources lie in the rural domain, it seemed necessary to boost water resource protection in these areas. There was a need to gather small communities, users and farmers together to build efficient comprehensive plans. There was a basic need for human resources to organise these plans. It takes time. Comprehensive contracts have been prepared with the help of a specifically appointed small team of facilitators. 32 of them have already been set up, and the success of such contracts have surpassed our expectations.

CONCLUSION

The French organisation including Water Agencies is now getting the first feed-back from their efforts. After having assessed their success, their policies are being updated to face future expectations and new concerns for environmental protection. The requent discussion with all the actors involved in the water field is indeed the most important key factor. So they will be able to play a full role during the next decades in integrated water resources management at this crucial basin scale.

REFERENCES

Internet site of the Seine-Normandy Water Agency:http://www.eau-seine-normandie.fr/
35 years of the Seine-Normandy Water Agency, Nanterre, 1999.
Annual report of the Seine-Normandy Water Agency, Nanterre, 1999.
The water Agencies facing the ecological fiscality, report of the congress of the Water Academy. Paris, 1999.
Proposals for the 8th programme, Seine-Normandy Water Agency, Nanterre, 2000.


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