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澳大利亚专家Dr Richard Evans、Sinclair Knight Merz演讲 -- 澳大利亚水资源开发利用
  2015-03-13 15:09  

Water Resource Development in Australia
By Dr Richard Evans
Sinclair Knight Merz

 

Background

An Ancient Land
——Droughts and Floods - very variable
——Hydrology
European Settlement
——200 years ago
——Major changes
Clearing the Land
——Groundwater Recharge Rate Changes 100 times
Post 2nd World War Irrigation Development

Surface Water Development

Dam building commenced in 1880s but post 2nd World War led to major dam building
264 major dams, thousands of weirs
Irrigation uses 75% of water
80% of available surface water in Murray Darling Basin is used
28% of the 325 surface water management areas are fully developed or over-developed
80% of total usage
Groundwater Development
——30% of the 538 Groundwater Management Units are fully developed or over-developed
——20% of total usage
——600,000 wells
Water Use
——Increased from 15,000GL in 1984 to 24,000GL in 1996
Water Quality
——turbidity, nutrients and salinity are the major issues

Key Events

Great Artesian Basin Development - 1900-1930
Snowy Mountains Scheme - 1950s
Major dam building in 1970s - Irrigation
Murray Darling Basin Commission Established - 1980s
Franklin Dam - stopped 1980
Caps on Surface Water Usage - 1990
Increased Groundwater Usage - late 1990s
Environmental Flows Debate - late 1990s

Key Trends in Water Resource Management

Transferable Water Entitlements
Caps on both Groundwater and Surface Water Allocations
Integrated Catchment Management
Water Industry Reforms
——Eliminate Conflict of Interest
——User Pays
——Full Cost Pricing

What Did Australia Get Right

Water Policy - Ownership by State
Encouraging groundwater usage
Closed catchments, in some cases - surface water quality
Groundwater protection
Strong research base

What Did Australia Get Wrong

Dryland salinity
Adoption of European farming practices
Lack of understanding of groundwater surface water interaction
State Responsibility, as compared to National Responsibility
Inefficient urban water usage
Channel leakage
Algal blooms

Challenges

Irrigation Salinity
Dryland salinity - including surface water salinity
Urban water pollution
Reform of water allocation policy

 

 

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